The Francoprovençal domain extends in Piedmont, between the Sangone Valley and the Soana Valley, and throughout the territory of the Aosta Valley, with the exclusion of the three Walser colonies of the Lys Valley. Francoprovençal varieties are also historically spoken in Central and Eastern France and Western Switzerland.
The Francoprovençal minority is characterized by a strong diatopic variability, evident internal fragmentation, and varying degrees of vitality depending on the area. In the Valdostan context, the minority code shows intergenerational transmission that is not yet completely interrupted, with good vitality and diffusion. However, in Piedmont, despite several local realities which are more vital, in recent decades the patois has lost much of its traditional domains of use to the advantage of Piedmontese and, above all, Italian. The latter has conquered contexts that were once exclusive to the local variety. Currently, the number of speakers is around 40,000 (about 15-20% of the population), with higher percentages in Valle d’Aosta.